Zero Valent Iron

Available Internationally

Standard and Custom Particle Sizes Available

Consistently best industry standards for quality

Zero Valent Iron

What is Zero Valent Iron?
Definition and Application

Zero valent iron is a type of iron that has both high purity and is not oxidized (also known as Fe 0), enabling it to donate electrons when it comes into contact with certain chemicals. It is the most commonly used zero valent metal used in environmental remediation. Zero valent iron (ZVI) creates a reducing/oxidizing (redox) reaction with contaminants in groundwater, such as the common drycleaner chemicals TCE or PCE. The result of this reaction is non-toxic or less toxic compounds. .

Zero valent iron is often referred to as ‘iron powder’ as it comes in small particles sizes in order to maximize surface area and thereby the amount of Fe 0  available to react with contaminants. Particles sizes for ZVI can range from coarse granular or shavings that are about 1 mm in size to nano-scale. There are a variety of factors which determine the size of particles that are best used for a particular remediation plan, from geology, type and concentration of contaminant(s), as well as cost and volume of iron required.

Not all iron is a good candidate for use as zero valent iron, such as iron from sources that contain oil or that are already oxidized. Care must be taken in selecting iron to be made into zero valent iron powders to ensure high purity of the iron, and in the production of iron powders to avoid oxidation.

Order Zero Valent Iron

Our -8/+50 mesh zero valent iron was designed specifically for for permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) and trenches. With a treatment life over 10 years, this ZVI is ideal for providing an effective treatment over time. 

Our -100 mesh, 150 micron zero valent iron is perfect for injection in a slurry. This ZVI has a highly consistent particle size, with greater than 97% of the iron particles at or below 150 microns, creating high surface area for greater reactivity.

Our -325 mesh, 44 micron zero valent iron is perfect for injection in a slurry. This ZVI has a highly consistent particle size, with greater than 98% of the iron particles at or below 44 microns, creating high surface area for greater reactivity.

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zero valent iron (ZVI) Frequently asked questions
What is zero valent iron (ZVI)?

Zero valent iron (ZVI) is a highly reactive form of iron that lacks any positive oxidation state, commonly referred to as “zero-valent.” It is an engineered material that has gained significant attention and application in various environmental remediation techniques. ZVI consists of fine particles or granules of pure iron with a high surface area to volume ratio, which enhances its reactivity.

What are the common applications of ZVI?

The most common application of ZVI is in the remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil, especially for the treatment of chlorinated organic compounds and certain metals.

How does ZVI remediate contaminants?

ZVI can react with contaminants either directly or indirectly. It promotes reductive reactions that can transform pollutants into less harmful or non-toxic compounds.

What are the benefits of using ZVI for remediation?

ZVI is effective, relatively low-cost, can be used in situ (i.e., treatment at the site of contamination), and can transform many pollutants to non-toxic or less harmful forms.

Are there different types of ZVI products?

Yes. There are granular forms, microscale, and nanoscale particles. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles have a larger surface area, allowing for more rapid and complete reactions with contaminants.

What are the potential risks or disadvantages of using nZVI?

While nZVI offers higher reactivity, there are concerns related to its potential toxicity, limited transport in soil, and rapid agglomeration which can decrease its effectiveness over time.

How is ZVI typically delivered to a contaminated site?

For in situ treatments, ZVI is delivered either by itself or in a mixure with emulsified vegetable oil and other remediation agents (eZVI) and can be injected into the ground or mixed with soil. For ex situ treatments, contaminated water or soil can be passed through a ZVI-filled treatment system.

How long does ZVI last in the environment?

The longevity of ZVI depends on the specific conditions and the type of ZVI used. As the purpose of ZVI in environmental remediation is to react with contaminants and degrade them, the ZVI will corrode and eventually get consumed over time. 

Is ZVI treatment approved by environmental agencies?

In many countries, ZVI is an accepted method for groundwater and soil remediation, especially for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents. However, specific regulations and approvals may vary by region and application.

Always consult with experts or professionals when considering ZVI for environmental remediation, as the specific circumstances and requirements of each site can greatly influence the success and suitability of the treatment.

Contact us for more information

Product Availability

Our ZVI is made in the USA and adheres to strict quality standards. With CAP Remediation, you know where your ZVI is coming from. We are able to ship both domestically and internationally. 

Standard Packaging

CAP Remediation supplies zero valent iron in supersacks for ease of storage and use on site. Supersack volume can be adjusted to your requirements. Drums and pails are also availalble. 


ZVI can be blended with emulsified vegetable oil and surfactant to enable remediation of chlorinated DNAPLs through biological reductive dechlorination. Emulsified zero valent iron is packaged in totes, ready to inject on site. 

In-Situ Remediation Service

Our team has extensive experience supporting time-sensitive projects across the US and Canada as well as internationally.

From military bases and other secured locations, to open fields, and active shopping centers in cities, we have been there and understand the often complex and time-sensitive logistics needed to make your project successful.